Robinson Crusoe Island, formerly called Más a Tierra (or Más Atierra), is an island in Chile that is part of the Juan Fernández Archipelago. It has 47.9 km²1 and its population was 488 in the 1992 census, while in the 2002 census, the number of inhabitants increased to 630, mostly concentrated in the town of San Juan Bautista in Cumberland Bay, founded in 1877 by Baron Alfredo Van Rodt.
The island was discovered on November 22, 1574 by Spanish navigator Juan Fernandez (1528/30-1599). Administratively, it belongs to the province and region of Valparaíso.
The fame of this island
Almost everyone knows Robinson Crusoe, a classic adventure novel that is inspired by real events that occurred in the early 1700s, when the Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk was abandoned by his crew on the island for more than 4 years. In the novel by the British writer Defoe, the shipwrecked man is called Robinson Crusoe, and due to the immense popularity of the story the island was renamed (previously known as More to Land).
The Juan Fernandez Archipelago also incorporates Alexander Selkirk Island, Santa Clara Island, and other smaller islands, with Robinson Crusoe being the only one inhabited. It was declared by UNESCO as a World Biosphere Reserve with the aim of conducting studies and conserving nature.
In addition, within this island is the Robinson Crusoe National Park where more than half of the species that live here are unique in the world.
Although most of them were introduced by man, they have acquired characteristics typical of the place where they live. Among the endemic species of the island are the fur seal and the Juan Fernández hummingbird. In terms of flora, there are 135 endemic species and 213 native species.
The park has multiple hiking trails, viewpoints, camping and picnic areas.